Details of the PSTN Protocol You Need to Know if you want to take CCIE Certification

You will need to know details about the PSTN protocol if you wish to take Cisco EI CCIE authentication. PSTN, which stands for Public Switched Telephone Network (or Public Switched Telephone Network), is a global switching network for voice communication. It is home to approximately 800 million people and is the largest telecommunications system in the world. The network is used by most people when they use landlines to make calls or dial the Internet at home. It is important to remember that the PSTN network was created to transmit voice data.
The telephone network known as the public switch telephone network (PSTN), is the one we use every day. PSTN, a circuit switching network that uses analog technology, is something we all know. While there are many Wan interconnection technology options, PSTN has the lowest communication cost, but the best data transmission quality and speed. PSTN’s network resource utilization is also low.
It also refers the basic telephone service (POTS). It’s a collection all circuit switched telephone networks that have existed since Alexander Graham Bell invented it. Technically, the public switched telephone network is fully digitalized today. This includes the connection between the user’s local switchboard and the user. PSTN is a significant part of the long distance infrastructure of the Internet. Internet service providers (ISPs) must pay equipment owners to be able to use PSTN’s long distance infrastructure and share circuits between many users via information exchange. Internet users pay only for Internet service providers. Public switched telephone network, a circuit switching service that is based on standard telephone lines and used to connect remote endpoints, is a circuit switch service. These applications can be used to connect remote endpoints to local LANs or dial-up Internet access for distant users.
PSTN’s two components
Two parts can make up PSTN: the switching system and the transmission system. The transmission system is comprised of telephone exchange and transmission equipment. These two components are constantly evolving and improving in response to user demand.
1. The following stages are likely to be involved in the development of a switching system.
Transfers are done manually in the age of manual exchange. As it was in the past, when you call, you first connect with an operator. The operator will then transfer you.
Automatic switching has brought forth step-by-step, vertical and horizontal switches.
Semi-electronic switching is the new era of electronic switching. Electronic technology is now integrated into the control portion of the switch.
Program-controlled switches were developed in the era space division switching. However, the transmission of the signals is still analog.
Digital switching is now possible thanks to the successful application PCM pulse code technology. This allows digital signals to be transmitted through digital SPC exchange.
2. The transmission equipment for PSTN has evolved from carrier multiplexing to SDH equipment and the cable has also evolved from copper wire to optical fibre.
PSTN is an analog proprietary channel that is connected via several telephone exchanges. To enable analog / digital and analog / analog conversions of signals, modems are required at both the network access ends. PSTN is a simple extension to the physical layer. It does not provide flow control, error control or other services. PSTN is a method of circuit switching. This means that all bandwidth can be used by devices at both ends, regardless of whether data is being transmitted between them. Circuit switching cannot make full use of network bandwidth.
Mode for PSTN Network Access:
The PSTN network access mode can be quite simple and flexible. It usually includes the following:
1. Access to the network via a normal dial-up telephone line Modem must be connected to both the original telephone lines and then Modem must be connected to the appropriate Internet equipment. Many Internet access devices such as routers and PCs have several serial ports. Serial interface specifications like RS-232 can be used between serial port and modem. The connection cost is relatively low and the charging price is the exact same as for regular telephones. It can be used for situations where communication is less frequent.
2. Leased te allows you to access the network